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Victoria Peltz - Egypt is Free

Like the “tumblers of time and transition,” first the Tunisian and then the Egyptian dictatorships fell by popular demand as surely as the wheels of cycles and synchronicity turn and cog in together. Are they connected? Are there more to come? Libya? Algeria? Yemen? Bahrain? Iran? In our own country, the people are revolting to defend the collective bargaining rights of public servants’ unions in Wisconsin, Ohio, Indiana, and New Jersey, to date. By the time you read this, you may know which ones have happened, or may soon. These are the times when the major players have been Uranus squaring Pluto, laying out the economic background for revolution in these times, along with the eclipses aligned with the cardinal sign players. In 2011, so many planets are changing signs.

Pluto is no longer a planet, yet it rules both power and the unvarnished truth in the sign it sojourns. In Sagittarius, Pluto revealed the dark side of several belief systems – religions mismanaging, going fanatic, and abusing the young. In Capricorn, it’s about business, finance, leaders, and management of resources as Pluto slowly grinds through. In Capricorn, Pluto reveals darker secrets about those in authority, like dictators, moguls, and especially older leaders whose time has come to step down, only they don’t see it themselves. In Egypt, it appears as Hosni Mubarak; in Libya, as Maummar Al Gaddafi, in the US world of investment, as Maddoff; but most certainly, in worldwide media, as Wikileaks.

Natal Chart of the Republic of Egypt: June 18, 1953, 11:30pm GMT in Cairo, Egypt

Uranus has been conjunct and enhanced by Jupiter three times; first, at the Aries Point on June 6, 2010, and it finally enters Aries for sure in March 11 (Earthquakes and Tsunami in Japan). Uranus squaring Pluto represents much; for example, the rebellious young people wanting their own freedom and power, willing to painfully wrest it from those in power too long. When privileged with the ability to watch these things unfold with charts in hand, it still amazes. In such times, we all learn more about the scope and range of what Astrology shows and verifies.

The eclipses, solar and lunar, in Cancer and Capricorn have been closely linked to the Cardinal sign T-square making those placements even more powerful since 2009. But it is the gorgeous Total Lunar Eclipse at Winter Solstice (The Lily Chart, 2010, see note 7), visible almost worldwide — marking a turning point. Coupled with the partial Solar Eclipse on January 4, 2011, these eclipses unveil and reveal something afterwards where they hit the charts of nations, rulers, and ordinary citizens.

In the Egyptian Republic’s natal chart, the recent eclipses were appearing around the MC in Capricorn and the IC in Cancer. The eclipse of December 21, 2010 opposed the Saturn and Ascendant of the chart for Tunisia, and squared April Issue, 2011 – 33 the Sun, symbolizing the leader. The eclipse in these charts foretold events in both Tunisia and Egypt as so aptly commented upon by Mary Plumb in The Mountain Astrologer.(1) Furthermore, Libya also has a military government begun on December 24, 1951. The transiting Pluto crossed the Sun of that chart, at 1º Capricorn, in now conjunct Chiron, and the Winter Solstice Lunar Eclipse opposed it at 29º Gemini; plus, that nation has had its own second Saturn return.

In Egypt, a chart for the Republic is June 18, 1953, at 11:30pm GMT.(2) It was formed after a revolution in 1952, at the second Saturn return of the chart for Egypt’s independence from England in 1921, before it became a Kingdom in 1922, under King Faud, and then Farouk in 1936. The chart for February 11, 2011, we can also consider the newest chart for Egypt for exactly the same reason we use the chart for the signing of the Declaration of Independence for the birth of our own nation, instead of the Articles of Confederation of 1777 or the Constitution of 1787. Also, 2011 comes near the third Saturn return of the initial independence of Egypt from Great Britain. While some may favor the 1922 chart of independence, which set the stage for a political separation from England, for good reasons, I chose the Republic chart for focus because it is both the second Saturn return cycle in action, and because the current revolution is most relevant to the 1953 chart for Egypt lead by Gamal Abdel Nasser, a former military leader. This military influenced government under former military figures Nasser, Anwar Sadat, and Hosni Mubarak, who became president after the assassination of Sadat on October 6, 1981, is what the people are revolting against.

In the chart for the 1953 Republic, the Sun is close to Mars, which rules the chart by its ascending 29th degree of Aries, making that Mars the ruler of the chart and key player in this transition shown by progressions and transits. That indicates that the military was always present in the ruling of the republic, as is actually still is true for now. Throughout Egypt’s history, layer upon layer of influences came from Europe, yet Egypt has also influenced all of its conquerors so as to make one ponder, “Who is the conqueror?” The beginning of this process was the conquest of the Greeks under Alexander the Great, and then Rome under Caesar and Mark Anthony, whose relationships with Egypt’s last Greco-Egyptian Pharaoh, Cleopatra, brought the old civilization to its end. This last dynasty of the Ptolemys ruled Egypt until 30 AD to the last Pharaoh of all, who died by her own hand rather than live in public humiliation as Rome took over her land. Live free or die.

Forgotten for centuries were the language and the history. Until Napoleon’s men found a translation stone near the town of Rosetta, Egypt had been frozen from divulging it’s secrets and treasures. Egypt is no stranger to being dominated and to sweeping and sudden changes of Pharaohs, Emperors, Caliphs, Sultans, Kings and Presidents, including those who cling to personal power in the face of protest and disappointing realities. School book history records Greece and Rome as the beginning of Western Civilization, but the famed Greek scholars traveled to Egypt and were tutored in geometry, mathematics and much more by the secret society of Egyptian priesthood. They “borrowed” so much that it could be argued that the true beginning of out Western culture has to be Egypt.(3) It remains in our fascination with its mysteries and in our spiritual quests.

The story of Egypt’s character, now and in the past, shows in the “birth chart” of the Republic. Egypt is a Gemini – twins, reflecting its ancient times when it was Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt on the Nile, reckoned by river flow direction rather than by compass direction. The duality is repeated in the symbols encoded throughout the land — by the papyrus and the lotus, the Ankh and the Was Scepter, and the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.(4) The land in ancient times was called Kemet (meaning Black Land) that arose on the fertile black soil deposited by the annual floods of the Nile River.

Egypt is also called the Two Lands. In ancient times the duality of life was not our puritanized “good and evil,” but rather that of order and chaos. In the sacred pantheon of Egypt, Orsiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys, and Horus, it is Seth who represents chaos as jealous brother of Osiris, who by legend brought order to the nomadic civilization through horticulture and animal husbandry. In civil matters and laws, theirs was not so much a concept of good and evil, but primarily that of cycles of order and chaos. In February, the modern Egyptians started cleaning Tahrir Square and putting all the tiles back in place after their phase of chaotic change, of course.

Jupiter in Gemini in the 2nd house shows the riches of Egypt in the information and stories of its past as told to the people who walk the grounds and neighborhoods of its temples and mystery schools of the ancient priesthood. These antiquities were staunchly and movingly protected from vandalism and theft during the demonstrations by crowds of the youth holding hands along side the military. The people of Egypt understand (Jupiter) what they have (2nd house), their value, and importance to the world. It is their primary draw for tourism, but it is far more. Most of European archeologists were not sufficiently prepared by their own corrupted and falling monarchies to fully understand the dual spiritual and material principles of Egypt’s Pharaonic tradition symbolized in artifacts, temples, tombs and pyramids. For understanding the mysteries of Ancient Egypt, the uniquely outstanding source of the symbolism, alignments, and sacred geometry published to date are the works of René A. Schwaller de Lubicz. An Alsacian scholar, Schwaller studied the art and architecture of the “Temple of Man” in Luxor for 15 years. He decoded the profound depth of the symbolic inscriptions, astronomical alignments and architecture that still stand at the center of Egypt’s struggle to preserve and discover the principles of Sacred Geometry lying at the core of the meaning of our human adventure on Earth.(5) Such is the core of knowledge that also lies with the ancient evidence in China, India, The Mayans of Central America and the Incas of South America.

In modern times, the Republic chart shows Egypt’s Gemini Sun still watching over a land of duality of the Ancient and the Modern side by side, antiquities and archeological digs within and near every city and town, drawing visitors along with the colorful and hospitable venues, banquets, performances and tours. In recent years the president’s investment has been in the Red Sea resort of Sharm el Sheikh, which is not a place for sight seeing antiquities, but a gathering place for Europeans and especially the rich from neighboring countries.

In these current events, the Sun is expressing in the 3rd house of communication through journalism, social networking, and the youth-driven revolution. Egypt is teaching the world that there should be more than one way to vote and be counted. Everyone knows the youth on Twitter and Facebook picked up the cue from Tunisia and took it to the streets. As told on NPR Radio program “On the Media,” aired Feb 12, 2011, “President Mubarak began losing his grip on journalists. Gamal Zayda, managing editor of Egypt’s most widely circulated daily newspaper, Al Ahram, explained why they decided to take a stand against Mubarak’s propaganda machine.” His Editor in Chief, as directed by the President, wanted to print pictures of the crowds with text saying they were in support of Mubarak, but the staff of journalists refused, on February 11, saying “Enough!” and in unison declared their support of the people against Mubarak. Lying for power was no longer tolerable (Pluto), and an unexpected unanimous protest (Uranus) was the solution. Hosni Mubarak was born on May 4, 1928 at an unknown time near Cairo.(6) His Sun in Taurus and full Moon in Scorpio can’t keep things under control any longer. Natal Uranus unaspected at 6º Aries and Pluto at mid Cancer are under siege from the Cardinal cross transits; and transiting Neptune has opposed natal Neptune in Leo, to name just a few features. Certainly, events he did not want or expect have marked the ending cycles for him.

Peaceful and placid in appearance, the richly appointed hotels and resorts of Egypt depict the lone Venus dignified in Taurus in the first house. For the most part, Egypt receives its millions of visitors with renowned congeniality. The feminine principle is strong. By the same token, the “Eclipse Chart of the Madonna Lily”(7) could also be called the “Eclipse Chart of the Lotus.” The lotus is Egypt’s sacred lily of Isis, and either way, the chart foretells the breaking forth and reassertion of the Divine Feminine — a principle present in Ancient Egypt as powerful goddesses influencing every phase of life. In ancient times women had sovereignty, unlike any other culture at the time and few since. They decided their own marriages, and it was by the matriarchal line that the Pharaoh ascended to the throne, not the father’s. In 1919, there also was a people’s protest that demanded Democracy involving many women, as this year’s protest does. The Lunar Eclipse of 12/21/2010 occurred at 29º Gemini, very close to the Sun in Egypt’s chart at 27º Gemini, and to the midpoint between the Sun and Mars, at 3º Cancer. For the world, the feminine principle is emerging and blooming as it has and will as a sacred lotus of Egypt’s pre-eminent Isis, mother of the prototypical savior, Horus. Egypt’s Madonna is Isis. The lotus is Egypt’s Madonna Lily.

The ruling Moon of the Cancer IC is in Virgo in the 6th House denoting the people of Egypt. In the natal chart, it shows the nurturing nature of a service culture attending to the details of serving millions of touring visitors from other countries in its hotels, cruises and restaurants – perhaps biggest job to be done, and it certainly is the source of greatest employment, serving up the past – Moon – to others seeking the healing energies of its sacred ancient sites and hospitable people. The 6th house natal chart position is also the house of crisis, and political crises have torn apart the country in regime changes before. The Sun makes trines to the Saturn/Neptune in conjunction near the cusp of the 7th house in the sixth. The 7th house mainly contains Scorpio – ruled by Mars and Pluto. Another country, Tunisia, mundanely indicated by 7th house, is the ignition for the revolution and rebirth of Egypt. The Moon in Virgo is under Mercury as is the Sun. Messenger Mercury is equivalent to Ancient Egypt’s Thoth, archetype of thought and recorder of the weighing of heart in the afterlife on the scales of Justice. Spiritually (Neptune), the principle of Divine Order is represented by Ma’at, the winged goddess, whose feather was weighed in the balance against the heart in the soul’s judgment on the scales of justice after death (Ma’at is next to the title of this article.) Ma’at was probably the most honored Neter (nature principle) of all and was responsible for regulating the stars, the seasons, law, and balance (Saturn in Libra).

The tight conjunction of Saturn/Neptune in Libra, the sign of balance and the scales of justice, squares Uranus with Mercury in Cancer at the Nadir. In Ancient Egypt the drive to manifest the spiritual in the material built the temples, tombs and pyramids by every Pharaoh – the King/Priest that ruled the land – an embodiment of a god on Earth. The Saturn of rule and authority with the Neptune of ultimate spiritual awareness indicates a need to face reality and bring ideals into manifestation that harmonize the energies according to the needs and wishes of others. Hope and anxiety combined describe both sides of this relationship. Saturn brings hard reality to Mubarak’s dreams (Neptune) of a lasting dynastic  legacy – it works both ways. Saturn also brings harsh reality of increasing poverty to the people’s delusion (Neptune) that they have a leader who cares more about his own power than he does about them. On the day before the announcement, Mubarak was supposed to announce his own resignation, but he just couldn’t give in to the people. Instead, he escaped to Sharm el Sheikh, allowing others to face the cameras. Do you see both Saturn and Neptune in that?

The Nodes of the Moon tell the inner disposition leading up to this uprising. Sovereignty lies in the 10th house ruled by Saturn, bearing out the prominence of the Saturn return at this time of change. The South Node (comfort zone) is in regal Leo in the 4th house of family indicating a comfort zone of self-satisfying pursuits of pleasure, while the North Node (destiny’s call) is in the people’s sign of Aquarius in the 10th house of authority and responsibility. Hosni Mubarek’s family leaves Egyptian rule greatly enriched – no one knows how much for sure – perhaps in the billions. The Nadir of the chart is nestled between Uranus on the 3rd house side and Mercury, dispositor of the Sun, on the 4th house side. There is a foundation of grass roots upheaval here, unwilling to see the wealth of the ruler in contrast to their increasing poverty in their homes, and of telling everything to the world. Stage set for liberation.

Liberation Day Chart for February 11, 2011, 6 p.m. Cairo, Egypt (prepared by Solar Fire)

The chart is made for the time of the announcement of Mubarak’s resignation on the media at 6:00 p.m., Cairo time on February 11, 2011. This is when the people officially learned by telecast that they had won. The chart has the Moon in Taurus at 26 degrees at the Mid-heaven, top of the chart, on the 10th house side. Mundanely ruled by the Moon, the people of the land take authority. The Sun conjunct Mars in Aquarius rules the chart by its Leo 27º Ascendant squaring the Moon. Neptune sits on the Descendant, and the revolutionary conjunction of Jupiter and Uranus are in the 8th house of transformation and shared resources with others. How we share our resources with Egypt is up for a change and making leaders in the U.S.A. very nervous of the continued changes in store. Venus, ruler of the Mid-heaven is in the 5th house of Egypt’s children conjunct Pluto in Capricorn, sign of authority. Saturn at Libra in the 2nd house makes a waning trine to the Sun/Mars conjunction, whilst Mercury at 12º Aquarius approaches the trine to Saturn from the 6th house. Can this cause for celebration last? As the transiting aspects of the 2/11/2011 tell, Egypt cut itself free of old worn out corruptive ways and is for now under the governance of a military heavily subsidized by the U.S.A. If the new constitution beings a new chart for the nation, it will be with a Jupiter/Uranus influence squaring Pluto; who can predict? Seems the time for change has come and nothing will be quite the same.

In transits, progressions and eclipse unveilings, the destiny is heralded in headlines and on hand held electronic devices. Modern day Egypt’s Gemini Sun in the 3rd house is near a militaristic self-protecting Mars in Cancer ruling the Ascendant at 29º Aries. Mars on the Cancer side implies the military siding with the people. Al Jezeera showed them in a circle protecting those who were praying in the middle of Liberation (Tahrir) Square, as the surrounding demonstrators circled them in a triple wheel of unified intent. Now the military is in charge, again, caretaking (Mars in early Cancer degree, opposed by Pluto) the transition process. Although the people of Egypt have demanded and won the chance to have a government based on actual votes, the military may continue to rule the country after the promised elections, or one from their rank may be “chosen” or elected. With Pluto opposing, however, there would be power plays and more revelations.

Triple Wheel for Republic Chart (1953) and progression and transits for date of Liberation (2.11.2011).

Summary Progressions and Transits:

Most prominently, transiting Sun and Mars are exactly conjunct on the day of Liberation at 22º of Aquarius in the 11th house, and directly opposed the Natal Pluto and the progressed Sun/Pluto conjunction at 22º Leo. Mars (agitation) hits Pluto (power of the masses) and rules the natal chart. Transiting Pluto, ruler of the 7th house is at 6º Capricorn is opposing natal Mars, ruler of the Ascendant and 7th at 3º Cancer. Force and agitation meet transformation in the masses. Agitation, acting out, and transformative change throughout is stated twice – for Gemini Egypt. Double whammy. Time for a complete change of selfhood and a completely different leadership, ruled by the Sun, aware by all to all. Also now, particularly to the Libyans, flanked by Tunisia and Egypt, freedom is contagious.

Progressed Ascendant is 29º Gemini conjunct the Sun, right on the nodal axis, conjunct the South Node – one degree away from the Total Lunar Eclipse point of Winter Solstice, December 21, 2010, and sits at the midpoint of Sun at 27º Gemini and chart ruler Mars at 3º of Cancer, Sun at 27º Gemini, and Mars at 3º Cancer. Mars rules the chart and co-rules the 7th, while the Sun rules the 5th. It’s time to take a chance, a risk, for youth to be served, and for them to assert their will.

Progressed Mid-heaven at 17º Cancer opposite the Solar Eclipse point of January 4, 2011, is making a trine to natal Uranus at 16º Pisces in the 11th house, rules the 11th house of humanity. An old leadership is revealed to be no longer viable and subject to a swift revolution as the people wishes take it down.

Progressed Moon is within two degrees conjunct the natal Descendant at 29º Libra, approximately two months away, just in time for perhaps a new constitution and new elections to start. The critical degree of now or never is touched by the Moon – the masses have progressed to the point of equilibrium and progressions here on out are above the horizon, and no longer “under.” The transiting Moon is at 26º Taurus on the day, and transiting Uranus at 28º Pisces, form a sextile, and each make an inconjunct to the progressed Moon at 27º Libra with progressed Moon exactly conjuncting and opposing the Ascendant, completing a YOD or finger of fate on the progressed Moon applying to the Descendant. The Moon’s North and South Nodes have gone into 0º of Capricorn and Cancer. The South Node conjuncts the progressed Ascendant. It’s time to move forward out of the past, changed and committed.

Progressed Jupiter at 21º Gemini in the 2nd house is making an exact square to Natal Moon at 21º Virgo in the 6th, which rules the 4th house and a trine to the Saturn/Neptune activated by Saturn return. This is a time to take a big bite out of life and worry about the consequences later. Saturn at 20º Libra rules the 10th and co-rules the 11th, while Neptune is at 21º Libra ruling the 12th house. The Jupiter encourages the long laboring and worried Saturn/Neptune and says, “Go for it. It’s time.” Saturn has been in its first return to the regime of Mubarak, second return to the natal Saturn for the Republic, and third return to the independence of Egypt. It rules authority, leadership, fulfillment of purpose, and time – time for an accounting and for change.

Progressed Uranus, ruling the 11th house of groups, conjuncts the 4th house cusp at 19º Cancer, from the natal 3rd house. Revolutionary Uranus by transit is exactly on the natal Mercury, the dispositor of both Sun and Moon at 20º Cancer in the 4th house ruling the 2nd house of wealth, and 6th house of jobs where the squaring Saturn is returning to natal Saturn. The revolution is about self-rule, and also about the global economic crisis of the Cardinal T-square that has become very heavy for this and other second tier countries in the Middle East to bear when the profits from oil revenue s are not shared with the people, as they are in Saudi Arabia. Transiting Neptune at 28º Aquarius, ruling the 12th house of mysteries, in the 11th house makes a trine to the natal Sun at 27º Gemini. Is it time for Egypt to become a Neptune in Pisces place for all to enjoy its spiritual riches, visitors and citizens alike? Yet, a return to hosting the shipping, research and tourism of the world will be a priority.

Whatever Egypt becomes, it will not happen without more unexpected changes and upheavals. Uranus, along with the other planetary players changing signs this year, on the Aries point, embodies the urge for liberation and individuality. Transiting Jupiter, close to revolutionary Uranus, at exactly 3º Aries in the 12th house, squares natal Mars at 3º Cancer in the 3rd house. Now is the time of rebellious action and releasing of the tensions. The revealed truth of power no longer viable sets the people free. The 2008 - 2013 Cardinal squares have laid a foundation of economic crisis, but do not ignore the history changing and innovative power of the Jupiter/Uranus conjunction. Conjunctions are even stronger than squares. In our country, this Grand Conjunction preceded our own Declaration of Independence in 1775, the Civil War in 1859, the cultural/scientific renaissance and subsequent crash of 1928 and 1929 (in Aries); and the Civil Rights Movement, war protest, and Moon landing when joined with Pluto in Libra in 1968, to name a few. Richard Tarnas has a chapter on it in Cosmos and Psyche.(8) Now, at the Aries Point, dancing out a triple pass, Uranus makes its final entrance into Aries on March 11, just one Moon cycle after the people’s victory in Egypt. That is an entrance, not an exit. As I previously wrote, the Mayan Calendar’s cycle is completed. Now we begin to see it. The old rule is going. We are in a new era.

“Freedom is just Chaos, with better lighting.” -Alan Dean Foster

 

Charts, Notes and References:

1. Plumb, Mary. “Eclipses in Tunisia and Egypt,” January 31, 2011. “We are All Egyptians,” February 7, 2011. The Mountain Astrologer. web. 23 February 2011.

2. Campion, Nicolas. The Book of World Horoscopes. 2004. Wessex Astrologer. Chart for Republic of Egypt, June 18, 1953, 11:30 AM GMT. Cairo, Egypt. Chart for Libya, December 24, 1951, 12:01 AM, CEDT – 2:00, Tripoli, Libya.

3. Coppens, Philip. Egypt: Origin of Greek Culture

“Both Plato and Pythagoras, identified as icons of Greek philosophy, stated that they and other great Greek philosophers had studied and learned that knowledge in Egypt. Many had studied many years at Egyptian schools, to return to Greece as the ‘first philosophers’.”

4. Sacred symbols of Egypt:

Ankh – stands for Life and is the hieroglyphic symbol of it. In wall paintings, gods, goddesses, and rulers were seen to carry it and confer the “Breath of Life” with it.

Was scepter – was a visual representation of the concept of “power” or “dominion” found, in Egyptian art, in the hands of the gods and goddesses, and often also carried by the pharaohs.

Lotus – The lotus flower was the symbol of Upper Egypt and can be seen repeatedly in various hieroglyphics on tomb and temple walls. It is the sacred lily of Isis and along with the papyrus, their designs crown the columns in many temples.

Papyrus – Papyrus is a reed growing abundantly along the banks of the Nile in Lower Egypt and became the symbol for Ancient Lower Egypt. It is the material from which writing paper was made in a process only recently rediscovered.

Double crown — the tall white crown worn by the king of Upper Egypt looked very much like a white bowling pin and was associated with the Lotus. The red crown was like a bowl with an extension up the back. The double crown together was worn to depict the unification of the land.

5. Schwaller de Lubicz, R.A. The Temple of Man. Original French text translated to English by Deborah and Robert Lawlor. Inner Traditions International, 1998.

“Schwaller was able to read and write the “Language of the Gods”, the Universal Symbolic Language of the Divine Mysteries, contained in all great Sacred texts, alchemical manuscripts and Sacred architecture. Schwaller measured the entire Temple of Luxor and proved that the plan was rigorously based upon human proportions and designed to symbolically represent man. The human being embodied in the geometry of the Temple’s architecture is symbolic of the Perfect Man. In Egypt, the Perfect Man represented the final stage of man’s evolution, his ultimate Divinization.”

6. Birth chart for Hosni Mubarak, May 4, 1928, 12:00PM (unknown) in Kafr-El Meselha, Monufia (Egypt).

7. Peltz, Victoria “The Lily Chart, 2010”, ISAR International Astrologer, Sagittarius edition, 2009, and “Update of the Lily Chart, 2010”, ISAR International Astrologer, Leo edition, 2010.

8. Tarnas, Richard. “Social and Political Rebellions and Awakenings” Cosmos and Psyche. p. 382+. Viking Adult. 2006.

 

Biography

Victoria Peltz, M.S.Ed, ISAR. CAP, has been in love with both astrology and ancient Egypt for over 30 years. In 1981, she saw the stellium Jupiter, Saturn and full Moon in Libra from atop the Great Pyramid at Spring Equinox. She helped lead 3 more tours, given lectures and taught classes on Egypt since then. Several articles combining astrology and ancient Egypt were published by RKM Publishing (“Buz” Myers). Victoria teaches English to foreign students seeking to study in America at Case Western Reserve University. She can be reached at vpeltz@gmail.com.